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Working principle and working process of CNC machine tools

The working principle of CNC machine tools is: according to the drawings of the processed parts, process analysis is carried out, the processing program is written, the processing program is input into the CNC device to complete the trajectory interpolation operation, the motion trajectory of the machine tool actuator is controlled, and the workpiece that meets the requirements of the part drawing is processed.

Horizontal machining center

The main working process of CNC machine tools:

1 Processing program compilation There are usually two methods for writing processing programs: manual programming and automatic programming, which are respectively for simple parts processing and complex parts processing.

2 Program input The method of processing program input varies according to the different input devices of CNC machine tools. There are two ways to read the CNC device into the process: one is to read and process at the same time, which is an intermittent operation method; the other is to read the entire processing program into the memory inside the CNC device, and then call it out from the memory during processing.

3 Trajectory interpolation operation After the processing program is input into the CNC device, the CNC device performs a series of processing and calculations with the support of the control software. The calculation results are output to the servo system in the form of pulse signals.

The shape of the part is composed of straight lines, arcs or other curves, which requires the tool of the CNC machine tool to move according to the shape and size requirements of the part, that is, to move according to the graphic trajectory. The so-called trajectory interpolation is to densify the data points between the coordinates of the starting point and the end point of the line segment. The horizontal machining center calculates the coordinate values ​​of a series of intermediate points and outputs pulse signals to the corresponding coordinates.

4 Servo system control and machine tool processing The CNC device outputs interpolation pulse signals, which are converted and amplified by power. Through the servo motor and mechanical transmission mechanism, the machine tool’s executive components drive the tool to process and process parts that meet the requirements of the drawing. Horizontal machining center

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