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Tips for using CNC finishing CNC machine tools

1 Improve the level of programming data processing technology

In the compilation of CNC machining programs, appropriate methods and techniques are needed to improve the programming data processing technology of CNC machine tools. To eliminate the influence of the tolerance zone position, CNC programs are generally programmed according to the contour of the part and the basic size of the part. This undoubtedly ignores the influence of the tolerance zone position, making the precision of the CNC machine tool very high, but the processed parts do not meet the requirements of dimensional tolerance.

1) The part drawing should be analyzed to determine the process, and the drawing, shape, size, and precision of the part need to be analyzed to clarify the content and requirements of the processing, determine the processing plan, processing route, cutting parameters, and the selection of tools and fixtures.

2) Related numerical calculations. According to the geometric dimensions and processing routes of the parts, the coordinates of the geometric elements, base points, end points, and arcs on the contour of the parts should be calculated. In the process of writing the program, the corresponding values ​​should be calculated, and the processing trajectory should be calculated according to the geometric dimensions, process routes, and the set coordinate system, and the corresponding data should be obtained. 3) Make a control mechanism. Apply the programmed program to the CNC machine tool as a parameter, input relevant information, and do a good job of proofreading the program and testing the first item. The written program and the prepared control mechanism must be proofread and tested before they can be officially used.

2 Improve the geometric accuracy of CNC machine tools

The tool is the most important tool for CNC finishing CNC machine tools when processing parts. When selecting a tool, its wear resistance, high temperature resistance and other parameters must be considered. It is also required that the tool must be able to bear a certain amount of pressure, impact and vibration. Therefore, when selecting a tool, the quality of the part and the use of the production process must be considered. Common machine tool tools are mainly made of high-speed steel, cemented carbide, and ceramic materials. Tools of different materials have different characteristics. Tools should be selected according to corresponding requirements. In addition to choosing a good tool, it is also necessary to reasonably control the tool and the geometric angle during processing. The geometric angle of the tool includes the arc radius of the tool tip, the main deflection angle, the blade inclination angle, the front foot, the back foot, the secondary back angle, etc. The tool needs to be controlled from multiple angles, that is, the main deflection angle directly affects the strength of the tool tip and the shape of the section. For the arc radius of the tool tip, the larger the arc radius, the lower the roughness of the machined part surface; for the front and rear feet of the tool, the sharper the front and rear feet of the machine tool, the finer its surface. In this way, the machining accuracy of CNC machine tools has a strong relationship with the tool. When selecting the tool, the accuracy and wear must be grasped, so as to effectively improve the geometric accuracy of the tool. In addition, the geometric accuracy of CNC machine tools is also affected by the cutting speed. Too fast speed will cause the CNC machine tool to vibrate, thereby affecting the geometric accuracy of the CNC machine tool. In response to this problem, it is required that in the process of designing CNC machine tools, treated steel sliding guide materials must be used, and the steel sliding guide must be placed below the plane during installation, and then the gap between the guide rail and the base must be filled with fillers, so as to improve the geometric accuracy of the machine tool.

3 Improve the machining accuracy of tool bearings

In CNC machining, the angle and material of the tool must be appropriately selected. With the deepening of industrialization, the characteristics between parts have changed from uniformity to standardization, and the tools used by CNC machine tools must also have these characteristics to improve the bearing processing accuracy of the tool. Although the tool itself has a relatively perfect material, in order to ensure the processing accuracy of the CNC machine tool, the tool must be scientifically selected; the hardness and wear resistance of the tool must also be considered during the processing process. For example, the most widely used tool materials are alloy and high-speed steel. To improve the bearing processing accuracy of the tool, it is necessary to use some parts to control the sliding bearing as much as possible; and to select bearings with good wear resistance to ensure the accuracy of the machine tool. In addition, the heat source in the machine tool should be minimized and kept away from the main shaft of the machine tool; at the same time, the machine tool should also be equipped with a heat dissipation function, such as using metalworking fluid for lubrication and taking away the heat during the processing process, thereby reducing the deformation of the equipment and parts. In addition, attention should be paid to the speed and adjustment of the bearing, such as adjusting the medium and small slide strips to make the gap in the middle less than 0.04mm, and ensure that it moves smoothly and lightly; select a machine tool with appropriate power to enhance the stability of the machine tool installation. In the process of CNC machine tools, the tool point must also be considered. The tool point is the point where the tool movement starts on the coordinate system. Pay attention to the tool setting process. If there is a problem with the tool setting, it will not only affect the accuracy of the processed parts, but also threaten the safety of employees.

4 Strengthen the maintenance awareness of relevant personnel

In CNC processing, the accuracy of CNC machine tools is directly linked to production quality and production efficiency. High-precision CNC machine tools are the premise for my country’s CNC processing to go international. Therefore, the management and maintenance of CNC machine tools are also very important.

1) CNC machine tools are a prerequisite for creating value, so related companies must recognize the importance of maintaining equipment and maintaining equipment. The quality of machine tool management directly affects whether the CNC machine tools can operate normally, and also affects the accuracy and effectiveness of CNC machine tools.

2) Relevant personnel must ensure the rational use of CNC machine tools. CNC machine tools play an important role in modern manufacturing. They improve the production efficiency of mechanical equipment, but they will be affected by the environment, air, and heat sources during use. Therefore, CNC machine tools must be used reasonably in daily work to avoid machine tool failures. During use, we should also pay more attention to CNC machine tools, ensure their correct use, and choose a suitable site. CNC machine tools are easily affected by the outside world. Therefore, we should effectively avoid them from being in high temperature conditions and humid environments, and relevant personnel should use them after being familiar with relevant operating specifications.

3) Relevant personnel should regularly check the levelness and mechanical accuracy of the machine tools, and do a good job of correction. There are two methods for correcting mechanical accuracy: the first method is to compensate for the system parameters, such as screw reverse clearance compensation, fixed-point compensation for each coordinate positioning accuracy, and machine tool reference point position correction; the second method is to repair the machine tool, repair the guide rails, and pre-tighten the ball screw nut pair to adjust the reverse clearance.

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