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CNC lathe process skills and three elements of cutting processing

CNC lathe is a high-precision and high-efficiency automated machine tool. The use of CNC lathe can improve processing efficiency and create more value. The emergence of CNC lathe has enabled enterprises to get rid of the backward processing technology. The processing technology of CNC lathe is similar to that of ordinary lathe, but because CNC lathe is clamped once and continuously and automatically completes all turning processes, the following aspects should be noted.

Reasonable selection of cutting amount

For high-efficiency metal cutting processing, the processed material, cutting tool and cutting conditions are the three major elements. These determine the processing time, tool life and processing quality. An economical and effective processing method must be a reasonable choice of cutting conditions.

Elements of cutting conditions: cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth directly cause tool damage. With the increase of cutting speed, the temperature of the tool tip will rise, and mechanical, chemical and thermal wear will occur. If the cutting speed increases by 20%, the tool life will be reduced by 1/2.

The relationship between feed conditions and tool back wear occurs within a very small range. However, if the feed rate is large, the cutting temperature will rise and the wear on the back will be large. It has less impact on the tool than the cutting speed. Although the impact of cutting depth on the tool is not as great as the cutting speed and feed rate, when cutting with a small cutting depth, the cut material will produce a hardened layer, which will also affect the life of the tool.

Users should choose the cutting speed to be used based on the material, hardness, cutting state, material type, feed rate, cutting depth, etc.

The most suitable processing conditions are selected based on these factors. Regular and stable wear to reach the life is the ideal condition.

However, in actual operations, the choice of tool life is related to tool wear, changes in the size of the workpiece, surface quality, cutting noise, processing heat, etc. When determining the processing conditions, it is necessary to study according to the actual situation. For difficult-to-process materials such as stainless steel and heat-resistant alloys, coolants can be used or blades with good rigidity can be selected.

How to determine the three elements of cutting processing

How to correctly select these three elements is a major content of the metal cutting principle course. Metal processing WeChat has extracted some key points. The basic principles for selecting these three elements are: cutting speed (linear speed, circumferential speed) V (m/min) To select the number of revolutions per minute of the spindle, you must first know how much the cutting linear speed V should be. The choice of V: ​​depends on the tool material, workpiece material, processing conditions, etc.

Tool material: carbide, V can be higher, generally more than 100 m/min, and technical parameters are generally provided when purchasing blades:

What material can be processed and how much linear speed can be selected. High-speed steel: V can only be lower, generally not more than 70 m/min, and in most cases less than 20~30 m/min.

Workpiece material: high hardness, low V; cast iron, low V, when the tool material is carbide, it can be 70~80 m/min; low carbon steel, V can be more than 100 m/min, non-ferrous metals, V can be higher (100~200 m/min). For hardened steel and stainless steel, V should be lower.

Processing conditions: For rough machining, V should be lower; for fine machining, V should be higher. The rigidity system of the machine tool, workpiece, and tool is poor, so V should be lower. If the S used in the CNC program is the spindle revolutions per minute, then S should be calculated based on the workpiece diameter and the cutting line speed V: S (spindle revolutions per minute) = V (cutting line speed) * 1000 / (3.1416 * workpiece diameter) If the CNC program uses a constant line speed, then S can directly use the cutting line speed V (m/min)

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